We do have a supply of the most popular replacement filters available from an aftermarket supplier.
Yes, there are many different ways to accommodate fleets for the care and maintenance of the diesel particulate filter and catalyst. The best action to take is to contact us and work out a process that is best for your fleet and maintenance schedule. We have several options to consider.
Phase 1 cleaning is pneumatic cleaning in a controlled fixture to blow the loose material from the internal cavities of the filter. Once this part of the process is complete and the filter is flow tested, and moved into Phase 2 of the process which is a manual regeneration in a kiln. Once the filter has completed the regeneration process in the kiln, the filter is then put back through the pneumatic blow off, flow tested and compared to original equipment manufacturers specifications. The filter would then be assessed by a qualified technician, graded GREEN, ORANGE or RED, and returned to the customer.
A DPF is made of a series of linear, porous chambers very similar to a honey-comb. Each chamber is designed to allow gas to pass thru the side walls and trap particulate. Half of the chambers are closed at the exit end of the filter the other half are open at the exit end of the filter. The chambers that are open at the exit end of the filter allow the gasses to escape. This action filters particulate from the air passing through the exhaust stream into the air we breathe.
Cleaning of the DPF, DOC or SCR is based on a duty cycle. The more stops and starts compared to highway driving will dictate longevity. In addition,
, the OEM has recommendations in your owner’s manual.
Please refer to your equipment or vehicle manufacturer for their recommendations. The operator/driver may notice performance reduction, loss of fuel economy or an increase in the number of regeneration cycles. This may be due to a partially plugged DPF or DOC.
In some applications with electronics sensors, a fault will occur and be displayed on your dashboard. In most cases the cleaning interval recommended is one year. Scheduling to have the filter cleaned annually will greatly prevent failure and the subsequent replacement.
Yes, soot builds up in the filter. The regeneration process as designed by the manufacturer, initiates to burn off the accumulated soot. This process works very well on a filter that is new or mostly clean. Clean meaning devoid of ash particles. Over time, ash builds up as trapped particulate in the filter media. No amount of regeneration cycles will remove the ash from the filter. Ash continues to build up reducing the efficiency of the filter creating excessive amounts of back-pressure.
The only way to get the filter back to optimum filtration and designed back-pressure is to remove the filter and have it properly cleaned. Our cleaning process will remove loose soot and ash from the filter media.
As diesel engines have evolved, and vehicle emissions have been monitored heavily and manufactures have been employing more and more emissions control devices, to better protect the environment and reduce the unsightly ‘black clouds’ that are renowned with older diesel vehicles.
One of these systems is the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) which sits in the exhaust system and filters harmful carbon particulates produced in the combustion cycle, preventing these particles from being released into the atmosphere.
First fitted to diesel vehicles from 2007, the DPF has been causing confusion and, in many cases, expensive repair bills from drivers, due to lack of knowledge about the system.
The filter is designed to deliver an 80% reduction in diesel particulate and soot emissions and does this by trapping the particles in the filter itself.
The engine control unit (ECU) monitors the saturation level inside the filter, and when it reaches a certain percentage, increases the temperature inside the exhaust to ‘burn-off’ the particles.
A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an after-treatment component that is designed to convert carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide (CO2) and water. The device is used on all our EU Stage IV/U.S. EPA Tier 4 Final products – from the 400F through to the 1206F.
It doesn’t matter if you are running your diesel engine on the road or off, you must still adhere to strict emissions standards. A diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC) is an after-treatment device that can help you do that, as it effectively turns CO and hydrocarbons into CO2 and water vapour.
The DOC is part of the technology we offer to assist you in meeting Stage IV and Tier 4 Interim/Final emissions standards. It breaks down pollutants in the exhaust stream from a diesel engine, helping to reduce particulate matter (PM). It’s similar to a catalytic converter in a car.
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is an advanced active emissions control technology system that injects a liquid-reductant agent through a special catalyst into the exhaust stream of a diesel engine. The reductant source is usually automotive-grade urea, otherwise known as Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF). The DEF sets off a chemical reaction that converts nitrogen oxide into nitrogen, water and tiny amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2), natural components of the air we breathe, which is then expelled through the vehicle tailpipe.
SCR technology is designed to permit nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction reactions to take place in an oxidizing atmosphere. It is called “selective: because it reduces levels of NOx using ammonia as a reductant within a catalyst system. The chemical reaction is known as “reduction” where the DEF is the reducing agent that reacts with NOx to convert the pollutants into nitrogen, water and tiny amounts of CO2. The DEF can be rapidly broken down to produce the oxidizing ammonia in the exhaust stream. SCR technology alone can achieve NOx reductions up to 90 percent.
The DOC is the first device in the after treatment system. It is a flow through filter that contains precious metals to start oxidation of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and unburned fuel and oil. Both the DOC and the DPF are honeycomb ceramic filters.
However, unlike the DOC, the DPF is a wall-flow filter that traps any remaining soot that the DOC couldn’t oxidize. The soot remains in the DPF until it is regenerated either passively or actively. Passive regeneration occurs when the vehicle’s normal operating temperatures and the DPF will oxidize the particulates anywhere between 275-360 degrees Celsius.
Active regeneration is instigated when sensors detect an excessive build-up of particulates within the DPF. Raw fuel is injected into the exhaust stream to trigger temperatures over 600 degrees Celsius which is required oxidize the build-up of soot.
Back pressure usually returns to normal after the soot is gone, however, don’t forget about the ash! Ash builds up inside the DPF and does not burn or oxidize like soot and will remain until removed.
Ash is made of minerals, metals and other trace elements from the breakdown of lubricants, additives and engine wear.
Ash builds up at a much slower rate than soot but if ignored will eventually cause increased back pressure, fuel consumption and sometimes DPF failure. As ash builds inside the DPF the number of active regenerations increase causing poor fuel economy, extreme high temperatures and more constant back pressure that can be detrimental to the turbo charger.
The longer the ask is left inside the DPF the greater the chance of it hardening into a plug which closes off a portion of the filter.
A vehicle operator will be the first to notice the shorter intervals between regenerations which is the first clue to ash build up and the need to remove the DPF for cleaning. This can also be observed by data-logging the regen. cycles in the workshop with diagnostic equipment. When the DPF is removed for cleaning it is always a good practice to also remove the DOC and clean it a well if necessary.
The last component in the after treatment system is a flow through SCR catalyst which introduces Diesel Emissions Fluid (DEF) to the process. This fluid contributes to the further break down of nitrogen oxides that pass through to the SCR filter. Typically the SCR filter doesn’t need maintenance except in rare events where a component related to the DEF fluid fails.
It is extremely important to keep the cell side walls clean of debris so that the exhaust gases will mix with the chemicals in the catalyst to perform designed functions. i.e. harmful gas breakdown and a regen.
Proper cleaning will ensure that the side cell wall will be debris free and will perform designed functions.
The DOC catches all of the combusted material from the combustion chamber. The DOC and the DPF are like garbage cans to the exhaust system.They collect all of the uncombusted material. The inlet face of the DOC is the first spot that this material collects on and plugs. Cleaning the DOC removes the material and gives a flow through to the DPF. It also removes material stuck on the side cell walls. The recommended cleaning interval is a minimum of once a year. IT would also be highly recommended to clean after any engine repair such as EGR cooler leak or injector malfunction or replacement.
If the DOC cannot perform its function, particulate material backs up in the DPF which backs up into the EGT valve and intake runners and eventually migrates into the engines combustion chamber. If the DOC is dirty or plugged, the raw fuel will not ignite will get into the DPF which could develop into a thermal event which will damage the filter media causing black holes.
Replacement of the DPF, DOC or SCR is a very costly solution to solve a problem. Cleaning the DPF, DOC and SCR is a very cost-effective method to achieve a 95% recovery when compared to the original equipment manufacturers flow specifications for new filters. Filter condition to achieve recovery will be based on the condition of the filter and determined at the time of inspection and cleaning at our facility.
Over time ash builds up lineally in the filter causing air flow restriction. This restriction generates exhaust back pressure. This pressure reduces engine efficiency requiring more fuel, more turbo boost and less power to perform the same work from the diesel powered equipment. If the filter is not cleaned, the accumulation of ash is accelerated. Ash plugs also form in the lineal passages of the filter which cannot be removed. A regularly scheduled cleaning as part of a preventive maintenance plan will minimize the effects of ash accumulation in the DPF and poor engine performance.
Although these filters differ in their location on the vehicle, they all share the need for maintenance and servicing because the filters can still get congested in their own ways.
If blockage builds up it can cause irreparable damages to the exhaust system resulting in massive repair cost, unscheduled vehicle down time and particulate matter entering the environment.
The DPF and DOC filters are suitable for pneumatic and thermal cleaning: conversely, because the SCR is a closed unit it is not suitable for the pneumatic cleaning. It can still be blocked by hardened DEF and if this happens it is not usually serviceable, however, specialists at FSX Equipment have a custom program for our equipment which is seeing early success in thermally treating the SCR.